Keratin 17, Keratin 18, 14-3-3 gamma, Epiplakin , Keratin 2, Keratin 8, Keratin 7, Plectin 1, Keratin 19, Periplakin, Vimentin, Envoplakin, GRB2, Keratin 13, Tubulin heterodimers (in microtubules), Keratin 6E, CDK1 (p34), Keratin 1, JNK(MAPK8-10), Plakophilin 1, Actin cytoskeletal, Tubulin beta, Keratin 16, Keratin 14, Keratin 5/14, Keratin 5, Keratin 8/18, Desmoplakin, Keratin 6A, Trichoplein, Plakophilin 2, Keratin 4, Tubulin alpha, BPAG1, Keratin 4/13, Tubulin gamma 1
Cytoskeleton in most eukaryotic cells consists of three distinct, yet interconnected, filament systems: Actin filaments, Microtubules and intermediate filaments. Cell assembly is integrated by the network of intermediate filaments (IFs) and by their interactions with other cytoskeleton structural elements defining cytoarchitecture and cytodynamics.
IF network is critically involved in cell shape control and imparts intracellular mechanical strength. The family of IF proteins has five sub-families. Four of the sub-families are localized in the cytoplasm, whereas the fifth sub-family is found in the nucleus. Expression patterns of cytoplasmic IFs are cell- and tissue-type specific.
IF networks are cross-linked by special binding proteins, e.g., Plectin, BPAG1, Desmoplakin, Envoplakin, Periplakin, Epiplakin, Trichoplein and Plakophilins , , , . These proteins maintain cell and tissue integrity by coordinated interconnection of three distinct cytoskeletal filament systems, and anchoring them to membrane complexes.