Leukocyte elastase, Aggrecan, L-selectin, chondroitin 4'-sulfate, Galectin-3, Laminin 1, BCAN, NCAM1, ITIH2, ITIH3, CD44, MMP-9, ITIH, MMP-1, Lymphotactin, Fibulin-1, Neurocan, Plasmin, Tenascin-C, Hyaluronic acid, E-selectin, Fibulin-2, ECM1, Tenascin-R, Stromelysin-1, CEACAM5, Elastin, CCL5, LYVE-1, CCL8, Versican, CRTL1, CSPG4 (NG2), MUC1, TIMP2, A1M, alpha-3/beta-1 integrin, Galectin-4
Cell- matrix glycoconjugates
Extracellular matrix (ECM) is composed of several macromolecules bound together in a complex network. This structure allows cells to adhere, migrate and interact. Hyaluronic acid, a glycosaminoglycan, is a major component of ECM. Hyaluronic acid -binding proteins such as hyaluronic acid receptor LYVE-1, CD44, cartilage link protein CRTL1, Aggrecan, Brevican ( BCAN ) , Neurocan and Versican, are implicated in cell-matrix interactions and in structurization of the ECM via stabilizing large macromolecular aggregates. They also play an important role in tumor metastasis and cell motility , , , .
Aggrecan, Versican, Neurocan, and BCAN are chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans of the ECM. Their interactions with cell surface proteins, as well as with chemokines such as CCL8, CCL5 and Lymphotactin, play important role in cell adhesion .
Fibulins are another family of the ECM proteins. Fibulins cross-link hyaluronan-proteoglycan complexes that play an essential role in supramolecular organization of cartilaginous and other extracellular matrices .
Tenascins are a family of large oligomeric ECM glycoproteins. They all modulate cell-matrix interactions and define the state of matrix attachment that promotes cell motility .
Galectins are a family of beta-galactoside-binding proteins implicated in modulating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Galectins exist in intracellular and extracellular milieu. In extracellular space, they link with beta-galactoside containing glycoconjugates of the ECM and cell surface adhesion molecules that regulate cell adhesion and differentiation , , .
ECM remodeling is regulated by a huge number of proteinases and their inhibitors. Alpha-1-microglobulin ( A1M ) is a serine-proteinase inhibitor. It forms complexes with one or two heavy chains, Inter-alpha (globulin) inhibitors H1, H2 and H3 ( ITIH, ITIH2 and ITIH3 ) . The heavy chains are linked to hyaluronic acid, and this attachment greatly improves ECM stability . A1M exerts an inhibitory activity towards Elastase-2 and Plasmin and it thus suspected of playing a key role in ECM biology .
Plasmin takes part in the processing of the matrix metallopreoteinases (MMPs), such as MMP-1. It also cleaves ECM proteins , . Plasmin, MMPs (such as MMP-1, MMP-9 and Stromelysin-1 ), and inhibitors of MMPs (such as TIMP2) directly participate in regulation of cell adhesion, migration, and ECM remodeling , .